Anglo-Norman Dictionary

A historical dictionary of Anglo-Norman French featuring more than 155,000 citations, fully dated and presented in chronological order per sense.

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AND entry for 'Poer'
AND entry for 'Poer'

Anglo-Norman is the name usually given to the kind of French brought over to England by the conquerors in 1066, then later exported to Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Initially it shared most of its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation with the medieval French of the mainland. Later, it began to develop characteristics of its own.

Although Anglo-Norman became an acquired second language in later generations as Middle English emerged, it was still in use for complex administrative matters and affairs of state well into the 15th century. This site offers resources for understanding these records of Britain’s past.

The completely revised version of the AND website was launched in 2020. This new site, with all of its data migrated to a server hosted by the University of Glasgow, uses an updated and more user-friendly interface. It retains all of its original functionalities and adds new and exciting ones.  The website includes the dictionary itself and its full range of search options. A new chronological element (that will help to expand the AND into a full Historical Dictionary) has been introduced to form part of these various search options. Furthermore, all 155,000+ AND citations are now fully dated and presented in chronological order per (sub)sense. Several thousands of citations have been added to entries A-Q to provide the earliest attestation of a word. Note that the date of the earliest attestation is provided alongside each headword.

In conjunction with this, the fully revised AND2 entries of R- are now published for the first time.

Developer: Brian Aitken

Start year: 1977

Funded by: AHRC

Subject areas: English Language & LinguisticsFrench

Keywords: APIHistory of EnglishXML

Record last updated 2021-01-20