I spent a fair amount of time on the new ‘Speak for Yersel’ project this week, reading through materials produced by similar projects, looking into ArcGIS Online as a possible tool to use to create the map-based interface and thinking through some of the technical challenges the project will face. I also participated in a project Zoom call on Thursday where we discussed the approaches we might take and clarified the sorts of outputs the project intends to produce.
I also had further discussions with the Sofia from the Iona place-names project about their upcoming conference in December and how the logistics for this might work, as it’s going to be an online-only conference. I had a Zoom call with Sofia on Thursday to go through these details, which really helped us to shape up a plan. I also dealt with a request from another project that wants to set up a top-level ‘ac.uk’ domain, which makes three over the past couple of weeks, and make a couple of tweaks to the text of the Decadence and Translation website.
I had a chat with Mike Black about the new server that Arts IT Support are currently setting up for the Anglo-Norman Dictionary and had a chat with Eleanor Lawson about adding around 100 or so Gaelic videos to the Seeing Speech resource on a new dedicated page.
For the Books and Borrowing project I was sent a batch of images of a register from Dumfries Presbytery Library and I needed to batch process them in order to fix the lighting levels and rename them prior to upload. It took me a little time to figure out how to run a batch process in the ancient version of Photoshop I have. After much hopeless Googling I found some pages from ‘Photoshop CS2 For Dummies’ on Google Books that discussed Photoshop Actions (see https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=RLOmw2omLwgC&lpg=PA374&dq=&pg=PA332#v=onepage&q&f=false) which made me realise the ‘Actions’, which I’d failed to find in any of the menus, were available via the tabs on the right of the screen, and I could ‘record’ and action via this. After running the images through the batch I uploaded them to the server and generated the page records for each corresponding page in the register.
I spent the rest of the week working on the Anglo-Norman Dictionary, considering how we might be able to automatically fix entries with erroneous citation dates caused by a varlist being present in the citation with a different date that should be used instead of the main citation date. I had been wondering whether we could use a Levenshtein test (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance) to automatically ascertain which citations may need manual editing, or even as a means of automatically adding in the new tags after testing. I can already identify all entries that feature a varlist, so I can create a script that can iterate through all citations that have a varlist in each of these entries. If we can assume that the potential form in the main citation always appears as the word directly before the varlist then my script can extract this form and then each <ms_form> in the <varlist>. I can also extract all forms listed in the <head> of the XML.
So for example for https://anglo-norman.net/entry/babeder my script would extract the term ‘gabez’ from the citation as it is the last word before <varlist>. It would then extract ‘babedez’ and ‘bauboiez’ from the <varlist>. There is only one form for this entry: <lemma>babeder</lemma> so this would get extracted too. The script would then run a Levenshtein test on each possible option, comparing them to the form ‘babeder’, the results of which would be:
The script would then pick out ‘babedez’ as the form to use (only one character different to the form ‘babeder’) and would then update the XML to note that the date from this <ms_form> is the one that needs to be used.
With a more complicated example such as https://anglo-norman.net/entry/bochet_1 that has multiple forms in <head> the test would be run against each and the lowest score for each variant would be used. So for example for the citation where ‘buchez’ is the last word before the <varlist> the two <ms_form> words would be extracted (huchez and buistez) and these plus ‘buchez’ would be compared against every form in <head>, with the overall lowest Leveshtein score getting logged. The overall calculations in this case would be:
bochet = 2
boket = 4
bouchet = 2
bouket = 4
bucet = 2
buchet = 1
buket = 3
bokés = 5
boketes = 5
bochésç = 6
buchees = 2
bochet = 3
boket = 5
bouchet = 3
bouket = 5
bucet = 3
buchet = 2
buket = 4
bokés = 6
boketes = 6
bochésç = 7
buchees = 3
bochet = 5
boket = 5
bouchet = 5
bouket = 5
bucet = 4
buchet = 4
buket = 4
bokés = 6
boketes = 4
bochésç = 8
buchees = 4
Meaning ‘buchez’ would win with a score of 1 and in this case no <varlist> form would therefore be marked. If the main citation form and a varlist form both have the same lowest score then I guess we’d set it to the main citation form ‘winning’, although in such cases the citation could be flagged for manual checking. However, this algorithm does entirely depend on the main citation form being the word before the <varlist> tag and the editor confirmed that this is not always the case, but despite this I think the algorithm could correctly identify the majority of cases, and if the output was placed in a CSV it would then be possible for someone to quickly check through each citation and tick off those that should be automatically updated and manually fix the rest. I made a start on the script that would work through all of the entries and output the CSV during the remainder of the week, but didn’t have the time to finish it. I’m going to be on holiday next week but will continue with this when I return.
I had two Zoom calls on Monday this week. The first was with the Burns people to discuss the launch of the website for the ‘letters and poems’ part of ‘Editing Burns’, to complement the existing ‘Prose and song’ website (https://burnsc21.glasgow.ac.uk/). The new website will launch in January with some video content and blogs, plus I will be working on a content management system for managing the network of Burns’ letter correspondents, which I will put together some time in November, assuming the team can send me on some sample data by then. This system will eventually power the ‘Burns letter writing trail’ interactive maps that I’ll create for the new site sometime next year.
My second Zoom call was for the Books and Borrowing project to discuss adding data from a new source to the database. The call gave us an opportunity to discuss the issues with the data that I’d highlighted last week. It was good to catch up with the team again and to discuss the issues with the researcher who had originally prepared the spreadsheet containing the data. We managed to address all of the issues and the researcher is going to spend a bit of time adapting the spreadsheet before sending it to me to be batch uploaded into our system.
I spent some further time this week investigating the issue of some of the citation dates in the Anglo-Norman Dictionary being wrong, as discussed last week. The issue affects some 4309 entries where at least one citation features the form only in a variant text. This means that the citation date should not be the date of the manuscript in the citation, but the date when the variant of the manuscript was published. Unfortunately this situation was never flagged in the XML, and there was never any means of flagging the situation. The variant date should only ever be used when the form of the word in the main manuscript is not directly related to the entry in question but the form in the variant text is. The problem is it cannot be automatically ascertained when the form in the main manuscript is the relevant one and when the form in the variant text is as there is so much variation in forms.
For example, the entry https://anglo-norman.net/entry/bochet_1 there is a form ‘buchez’ in a citation and then two variant texts for this where the form is ‘huchez’ and ‘buistez’. None of these forms are listed in the entry’s XML as variants so it’s not possible for a script to automatically deduce which is the correct date to use (the closest is ‘buchet’). In this case the main citation form and its corresponding date should be used. Whereas in the entry https://anglo-norman.net/entry/babeder the main citation form is ‘gabez’ while the variant text has ‘babedez’ and so this is the form and corresponding date that needs to be used. It would be difficult for a script to automatically deduce this. In this case a Levenstein test (which test how many letters need to be changed to turn one string into another) could work, but this would still need to be manually checked.
The editor wanted me to focus on those entries where the date issue affects the earliest date for an entry, as these are the most important as the issue results in an incorrect date being displayed for the entry in the header and the browse feature. I wrote a script that finds all entries that feature ‘<varlist’ somewhere in the XML (the previously exported 4309 entries). It then goes through all attestations (in all sense, subsense and locution sense and subsense sections) to pick out the one with the earliest date, exactly as the code for publishing an entry does. What it then does is checks the quotation XML for the attestation with the earliest date for the presence of ‘<varlist’ and if it finds this it outputs information for the entry, consisting of the slug, the earliest date as recorded in the database, the earliest date of the attestation as found by the script, the ID of the attestation and then the XML of the quotation. The script has identified 1549 entries that have a varlist in the earliest citation, all of which will need to be edited.
However, every citation has a date associated with it and this is used in the advanced search where users have the option to limit their search to years based on the citation date. Only updating citations that affect the entry’s earliest date won’t fix this, as there will still be many citations with varlists that haven’t been updated and will still therefore use the wrong date in the search. Plus any future reordering of citations would require all citations with varlists to be updated to get entries in the correct order. Fixing the earliest citations with varlists in entries based on the output of my script will fix the earliest date as used in the header of the entry and the ‘browse’ feature only, but I guess that’s a start.
Also this week I sorted out some access issues for the RNSN site, submitted the request for a new top-level ‘ac.uk’ domain for the STAR project and spent some time discussing the possibilities for managing access to videos of the conference sessions for the Iona place-names project. I also updated the page about the Scots Dictionary for Schools app on the DSL website (https://dsl.ac.uk/our-publications/scots-dictionary-for-schools-app/) after it won the award for ‘Scots project of the year’.
I also spent a bit of time this week learning about the statistical package R (https://www.r-project.org/). I downloaded and installed the package and the R Studio GUI and spent some time going through a number of tutorials and examples in the hope that this might help with the ‘Speak for Yersel’ project.
For a few years now I’ve been meaning to investigate using a spider / radar chart for the Historical Thesaurus, but I never found the time. I unexpectedly found myself with some free time this week due to ‘Speak for Yersel’ not needing anything from me yet so I thought I’d do some investigation. I found a nice looking d3.js template for spider / radar charts here: http://bl.ocks.org/nbremer/21746a9668ffdf6d8242 and set about reworking it with some HT data.
My idea was to use the chart to visualise the distribution of words in one or more HT categories across different parts of speech in order to quickly ascertain the relative distribution and frequency of words. I wanted to get an overall picture of the makeup of the categories initially, but to then break this down into different time periods to understand how categories changed over time.
As an initial test I chose the categories 02.04.13 Love and 02.04.14 Hatred, and in this initial version I looked only at the specific contents of the categories – no subcategories and no child categories. I manually extracted counts of the words across the various parts of speech and then manually split them up into words that were active in four broad time periods: OE (up to 1149), ME (1150-1449), EModE (1450-1799) and ModE (1800 onwards) and then plotted them on the spider / radar chart, as you can see in this screenshot:
You can quickly move through the different time periods plus the overall picture using the buttons above the visualisation, and I think the visualisation does a pretty good job of giving you a quick and easy to understand impression of how the two categories compare and evolve over time, allowing you to see, for example, how the number of nouns and adverbs for love and hate are pretty similar in OE:
but by ModE the number of nouns for Love have dropped dramatically, as have the number of adverbs for Hate:
We are of course dealing with small numbers of words here, but even so it’s much easier to use the visualisation to compare different categories and parts of speech than it is to use the HT’s browse interface. Plus if such a visualisation was set up to incorporate all words in child categories and / or subcategories it could give a very useful overview of the makeup of different sections of the HT and how they develop over time.
There are some potential pitfalls to this visualisation approach, however. The scale used currently changes based on the largest word count in the chosen period, meaning unless you’re paying attention you might get the wrong impression of the number of words. I could change it so that the scale is always fixed as the largest, but that would then make it harder to make out details in periods that have much fewer words. Also, I suspect most categories are going to have many more nouns than other parts of speech, and a large spike of nouns can make it harder to see what’s going on with the other axes. Another thing to note is that the order of the axes is fairly arbitrary but can have a major impact on how someone may interpret the visualisation. If you look at the OE chart the ‘Hate’ area looks massive compared to the ‘Love’ area, but this is purely because there is only one ‘Love’ adjective compared to 5 for ‘Hate’. If the adverb axis had come after the noun one instead the shapes of ‘Love’ and ‘Hate’ would have been more similar. You don’t necessarily appreciate on first glance that ‘Love’ and ‘Hate’ have very similar numbers of nouns in OE, which is concerning. However, I think the visualisations have a potential for the HT and I’ve emailed the other HT people to see what they think.
This was a four-day week for me as I’d taken Friday off. I went into my office at the University on Tuesday to have my Performance and Development Review with my line-manager Marc Alexander. It was the first time I’d been at the University since before the summer and it felt really different to the last time – much busier and more back to normal, with lots of people in the building and a real bustle to the West End. My PDR session was very positive and it was great to actually meet a colleague in person again – the first time I’d done so since the first lockdown began. I spent the rest of the day trying to get my office PC up to date after months of inaction. One of the STELLA apps (the Grammar one) had stopped working on iOS devices, seemingly because it was still a 32-bit app, and I wanted to generate a new version of it. This meant upgrading MacOS on my dual-boot PC, which I hadn’t used for years and was very out of date. I’m still not actually sure whether the Mac I’ve got will support a version of MacOS that will allow me to engage in app development, as I need to incrementally upgrade the MacOS version, which takes quite some time, and by the end of the day there were still further updates required. I’ll need to continue with this another time.
I spent quite a bit of the remainder of the week working on the new ‘Speak for Yersel’ project. We had a team meeting on Monday and a follow-up meeting on Wednesday with one of the researchers involved in the Manchester Voices project (https://www.manchestervoices.org/) who very helpfully showed us some of the data collection apps they use and some of the maps that they generate. It gave us a lot to think about, which was great. I spent some further time looking through other online map examples, such as the New York Times dialect quiz (https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html) and researching how we might generate the maps we’d like to see. It’s going to take quite a bit more research to figure out how all of this is going to work.
Also this week I spoke to the Iona place-names people about how their conference in December might be moved online and fixed a permissions issue with the Imprints of New Modernist Editing website and discussed the domain name for the STAR project with Eleanor Lawson. I also had a chat with Luca Guariento about the restrictions we have on using technologies on the servers in the College of Arts and how this might be addressed.
I also received a spreadsheet of borrowing records covering five registers for the Books and Borrowing project and went through it to figure out how the data might be integrated with our system. The biggest issue is figuring out which page each record is on. In the B&B system each borrowing record must ‘belong’ to a page, which in turn ‘belongs’ to a register. If a borrowing record has no page it can’t exist in the system. In this new data only three registers have a ‘Page No.’ column and not every record in these registers has a value in this column. We’ll need to figure out what can be done about this, because as I say, having a page is mandatory in the B&B system. We could use the ‘photo’ column as this is present across all registers and every row. However, I noticed that there are multiple photos per page, e.g. for SL137144 page 2 has 2 photos (4538 and 4539) so photo IDs don’t have a 1:1 relationship with pages. If we can think of a way to address the page issue then I should be able to import the data.
Finally, I continued to work on the Anglo-Norman Dictionary project, fixing some issues relating to yoghs in the entries and researching a potentially large issue relating to the extraction of earliest citation dates. Apparently there are a number of cases when the date for a citation that should be used is not the date as coded in the date section of the citation’s XML, but should instead be a date taken from a manuscript containing a variant form within the citation. The problem is there is no flag to state when this situation occurs, instead it occurs whenever the form of the word in the citation is markedly different within the citation but similar in the variant text. It seems unlikely that an automated script would be able to ascertain when to use the variant date as there is just so much variation between the forms. This will need some further investigation, which I hope to be able to do next week.
I spent more than a day this week preparing my performance and development review form. It’s the first time there’s been a PDR since before covid and it took some time to prepare everything. Thankfully this blog provides a good record of everything I’ve done so I could base my form almost entirely on the material found here, which helped considerably.
Also this week I investigated and fixed an issue with the SCOTS corpus for Wendy Anderson. One of the transcriptions of two speakers had the speaker IDs the wrong way round compared to the IDs in the metadata. This was slightly complicated to sort out as I wasn’t sure whether it was better to change the participant metadata to match the IDs used in the text or vice-versa. It turned out to be very difficult to change the IDs in the metadata as they are used to link numerous tables in the database, so instead I updated the text that’s displayed. Rather strangely, the ‘download plan text’ file contained different incorrect IDs. I fixed this as well, but it does make me worry that the IDs might be off in other plain text transcriptions too. However, I looked at a couple of others and they seem ok, though, so perhaps it’s an isolated case.
I was contacted this week by a lecturer in English Literature who is intending to put a proposal together for a project to transcribe an author’s correspondence, and I spent some time writing a lengthy email with home helpful advice. I also spoke to Jennifer Smith about her ‘Speak for Yersel’ project that’s starting this month, and we arranged to have a meeting the week after next. I also spent quite a bit of time continuing to work on mockups for the STAR project’s websites based on feedback I’d received on the mockups I completed last week. I created another four mockups with different colours, fonts and layouts, which should give the team plenty of options to decide from. I also received more than a thousand new page images of library registers for the Books and Borrowing project and processed these and uploaded them to the server. I’ll need to generate page records for them next week.
Finally, I continued to make updates to the Textbase search facilities for the Anglo-Norman Dictionary. I updated genre headings to make them bigger and bolder, with more of a gap between the heading and the preceding items. I also added a larger indent to the items within a genre and reordered the genres based on a new suggested order. For each book I included the siglum as a link through to the book’s entry on the bibliography page and in the search results where a result’s page has an underscore in it the reference now displays volume and page number (e.g. 3_801 displays as ‘Volume 3, page 801’). I updated the textbase text page so that page dividers in the continuous text also display volume and page in such cases.
Highlighted terms in the textbase text page no longer have padding around them (which was causing what looked like spaces when the term appears mid-word). The text highlighting is unfortunately a bit of a blunt instrument, as one of the editors discovered by searching for the terms ‘le’ and fable’: term 1 is located and highlighted first, then term 2 is. In this example the first term is ‘le’ and the second term is ‘fable’. Therefore the ‘le’ in ‘fable’ is highlighted during the first sweep and then ‘fable’ itself isn’t highlighted as it has already been changed to have the markup for the ‘le’ highlighting added to it and no longer matches ‘fable’. Also, ‘le’ is matching some HTML tags buried in the text (‘style’), which is then breaking the HTML, which is why some HTML is getting displayed. I’m not sure much can be done about any of this without a massive reworking of things, but it’s only an issue when searching for things like ‘le’ rather than actual content words so hopefully it’s not such a big deal.
The editor also wondered whether it would be possible to add in an option for searching and viewing multiple terms altogether but this would require me to rework the entire search and it’s not something I want to tackle if I can avoid it. If a user wants to view the search results for different terms they can select two terms then open the full results in a new tab, repeating the process for each pair of terms they’re interested in, switching from tab to tab as required. Next week I’ll need to rename some of the textbase texts and split one of the texts into two separate texts, which is going to require me to regenerate the entire dataset.
This week I completed work on a first version of the textbase search facilities for the Anglo-Norman Dictionary. I’ve been working on this over the past three weeks and it’s now fully operational, quick to use and does everything that was required of it. I completed work on the KWIC ordering facilities, adding in a drop-down list that enables the user to order the results either by the term or any word to the left or right of the term. When results are ordered by a word to the left or right of the search term that word is given a yellow highlight so you can easily get your eye on the word that each result is being ordered by. I ran into a few difficulties with the ordering, for example accented initial characters were being sorted after ‘z’, and upper case characters were all sorted before lower case characters, but I’ve fixed these issues. I also updated the textbase page so that when you load a text from the results a link back to the search results appears at the top of the page. You can of course just use the ‘back’ button to return to the search results. Also, all occurrences of the search term throughout the text are highlighted in yellow. There are possibly some further enhancements that could be made here (e.g. we could have a box that hovers on the screen like the ‘Top’ button that contains a summary of your search and a link back to the results, or options to load the next or previous result) but I’ll leave things as they are for now as what’s there might be good enough. I also fixed some bugs that were cropping up, such as an exact search term not appearing in the search box when you return to refine your results (caused by double quotes needing to be changed to the code ‘%22’).
I then began thinking about the development of a proximity search for the textbase. As with the old site, this will allow the user to enter two search terms and specify the maximum number of words before or after the first term the second one appears. The results will then be displayed in a KWIC form with both terms highlighted. It took quite some time to think through the various possibilities for this feature. The simplest option from a technical point of view would be to process the first term as with the regular search, retrieve the KWIC for each result and then search this for the second term. However, this wouldn’t allow the user to search for an exact match for the second term, or use wildcards, as the KWIC only contains the full text as written, complete with punctuation. Instead I decided to make the proximity search as similar to and as consistent with the regular textbase search as possible. This means the user will be able to enter the two terms with wildcards and two lists of possible exact matches will be displayed, from which the user can select term 1 and term 2. Then at this point the exact matches for term 1 will be returned and in each case a search will be performed to see whether term 2 is found however number of words specified before or after term 1. This will rely on the ‘word order’ column that I already added to the database, but will involve some complications when term 1 is near the very start or end of a page (as the search will then need to look at the preceding or following page). I ran a few tests of this process directly via the database and it seemed to work ok, but I’ll just need to see whether there are any speed issues when running such queries on potentially thousands of results.
Also this week I had an email from Bryony Randall about her upcoming exhibition for her New Modernist Editing project. The exhibition will feature a live website (https://www.blueandgreenproject.com/) running on a tablet in the venue and Bryony was worried that the wifi at the venue wouldn’t be up to scratch. She asked whether I could create a version of the site that would run locally without an internet connection, and I spent some time working on this.
I continued to work on my replica of the site, getting all of the content transferred over. This took longer than I anticipated, as some of the pages are quite complicated (artworks including poetry, images, text and audio) but I managed to get everything done before the end of the week. In the end it turned out that the wifi at the venue was absolutely fine so my replica site wasn’t needed, but it was still a good opportunity to learn about hosting a site on an Android device and to hone my Bootstrap skills.
Also this week I helped Katie Halsey of the Books and Borrowing project with a query about access to images, had a look through the final version of Kirsteen McCue’s AHRC proposal and spoke to Eleanor Lawson about creating some mockups of the interface to the STAR project websites, which I will start on next week.
I returned to Glasgow for a more regular week of working from home, after spending a delightful time at my parents’ house in Yorkshire for the past two weeks. I continued to work on the Comparative Kingship front-ends this week. I fixed a couple of issues with the content management systems, such as ensuring that the option to limit the list of place-names by parish worked for historical parishes and fixing an issue whereby searching by sources was returning zero results. Last week I’d contacted Chris Fleet at NLS Maps to ask whether we might be able to incorporate a couple of maps of Ireland that they host into our resource, and Chris got back to me with a very helpful reply, giving us permission to use the maps and also pointing out some changes to the existing map layers that I could make.
I updated the attribution links on the site, and pointed the OS six-inch map links to the NLS’s hosting on AWS. I also updated these things on the other place-name resources I’ve created too. We had previously been using a modern OS map layer hosted by the NLS, and Chris pointed out that a more up to date version could now be accessed directly from the OS website (see Chris’s blog post here: https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/newsroom/blog/comparing-past-present-new-os-maps-api-layers). I followed the instructions and signed up for an OS API key, and it was then a fairly easy process to replace the OS layer with the new one. I did the same with the other place-name resources too, and its looks pretty good. See for example how it looks on a map showing placenames beginning with ‘B’ on the Berwickshire site: https://berwickshire-placenames.glasgow.ac.uk/place-names/?p=results&source=browse&reels_name=B*#13/55.7939/-2.2884/resultsTabs-0/code/tileOS//
With these changes and the Irish historical maps in place I continued to work on the Irish front-end. I added in the parish boundaries for all of the currently required parishes and also added in three-letter acronyms that the researcher Nick Evans had created for each parish. These are needed to identify the parishes on the map, as full parish names would clutter things up too much. I then needed to manually positing each of the acronyms on the map, and to do so I updated the Irish map to print the latitude and longitude of a point to the console whenever a mouse click is made. This made it very easy to grab the coordinates of an ideal location for each acronym.
There were a few issues with the parish boundaries, and Nick wondered whether the boundary shapefiles he was using might work better. I managed to open the parish boundary shapefile in QGIS, converted the boundary data to WGS84 (latitude / longitude) and then extracted the boundaries as a GeoJSON file that I can use with my system. I then replaced the previous parish boundaries with the ones from this dataset, but unfortunately something was not right with the positioning. The northern Irish ones appear to be too far north and east, with the boundary for BNT extending into the sea rather than following the coast and ARM not even including the town of Armoy, as the following screenshot demonstrates:
In QGIS I needed to change the coordinate reference system from TM65 / Irish Grid to WGS84 to give me latitude and longitude values, and I wondered whether this process had caused the error, therefore I loaded the parish data into QGIS again and added an OpenStreetMap base map to it too, and the issue with the positioning is still apparent in the original data, as you can see from the following QGIS screenshot:
I can’t quite tell if the same problem exists with the southern parishes. I’d positioned the acronyms in the middle of the parishes and they mostly still seem to be in the middle, which suggests these boundaries may be ok, although I’m not sure how some could be wrong while others are correct as everything is joined together. After consultation with Nick I reverted to the original boundaries, but kept a copy of the other ones in case we want to reinstate them in future.
Also this week I investigated a strange issue with the Anglo-Norman Dictionary, whereby a quick search for ‘resoler’ brings back an ‘autocomplete’ match, but then finds zero results if you click on it. ‘Resoler’ is a cross-reference entry and works in the ‘browse’ option too. It seemed very strange that the redirect from the ‘browse’ would work, and also that a quick search for ‘resolut’, which is another variant of ‘resoudre’ was also working. It turns out that it’s an issue with the XML for the entry for ‘resoudre’. It lists ‘resolut’ as a variant, but does not include ‘resoler’ as you can see:
The search uses the variants / deviants from the XML to figure out which main entry to load from a cross reference. As ‘resoler’ is not present the system doesn’t know what entry ‘resoler’ refers to and therefore displays no results. I pointed this out to the editor, who changed the XML to add in the missing variant, which fixed the issue.
Also this week I responded to some feedback on the Data Management Plan for Kirsteen’s project, which took a little time to compile, and spoke to Jennifer Smith about her upcoming follow-on project for SCOSYA, which begins in September and I’ll be heavily involved with. I also had a chat with Rhona about the ancient DSL server that we should now be able to decommission.
Finally, Gerry Carruthers sent me some further files relating to the International Journal of Scottish Theatre, which he is hoping we will be able to host an archive of at Glasgow. It consisted of a database dump, which I imported into a local database and had a look at it. It mostly consists of tables used to manage some sort of editorial system and doesn’t seem to contain the full text of the articles. Some of the information contained in it may be useful, though – e.g. it stores information about article titles, authors, the issues articles appear in, the original PDF filenames for each article etc.
In addition, the full text of the articles is available as both PDF and HTML in the folder ‘1>articles’. Each article has a numerically numbered folder (e.g. 109) that contains two folders: ‘public’ and ‘submission’. ‘public’ contains the PDF version of the article. ‘submission’ contains two further folders: ‘copyedit’ and ‘layout’. ‘copyedit’ contains an HTML version of the article while ‘layout’ contains a further PDF version. It would be possible to use each HTML version as a basis for a WordPress version of the article. However, some things need to be considered:
Does the HTML version always represent the final published version of the article? The fact that it exists in folders labelled ‘submission’ and ‘copyedit’ and not ‘public’ suggests that the HTML version is likely to be a work in progress version and editorial changes may have been made to the PDF in the ‘public’ folder that are not present in the HTML version. Also, there are sometimes multiple HTML versions of the article. E.g. in the folder ‘1>articles>154>submission>copyedit’ there are two HTML files: ‘164-523-1-CE.htm’ and ‘164-523-2-CE.htm’. These both contain the full text of the article but have different formatting (and may have differences in the content, but I haven’t checked this).
After looking at the source of the HML versions I realised these have been auto-generated from MS Word. Word generates really messy, verbose HTML with lots of unnecessary tags and I therefore wanted to see what would happen if I copied and pasted it into WordPress. My initial experiment was mostly a success, but WordPress treats line breaks in the pasted file as actual line breaks, meaning the text didn’t display as it should. What I needed to do in my text editor was find and replace all line break characters (\r and \n) with spaces. I also had to make sure I only copied the contents within the HTML <body> tag rather than the whole text of the file. After that the process worked quite well.
However, there are other issues with the dataset. For example, article 138 only has Word files rather than HTML or PDF files and article 142 has images in it, and these are broken in the HTML version of the article. Any images in articles will probably have to be manually added in during proofreading. We’ll need to consider whether we’ll have to get someone to manually migrate the data, or whether I can write a script that will handle the bulk of the process.
I had my second vaccination jab on Wednesday this week, which thankfully didn’t hit me as hard as the first one did. I still felt rather groggy for a couple of days, though. Next week I’m on holiday again, this time heaving to the Kintyre peninsula to a cottage with no internet or mobile signal, so I’ll be unreachable until the week after next.
This was my second and final week staying at my parents’ house in Yorkshire, where I’m working a total of four days over the two weeks. This week I had an email conversation with Eleanor Lawson about her STAR project, which will be starting very shortly. We discussed the online presence for the project, which will be split between a new section on the Seeing Speech website and an entirely new website, the project’s data and workflows and my role over the 24 months of the project. I also created a script to batch process some of the Edinburgh registers for the Books and Borrowing project. The page images are double spreads and had been given a number for both the recto and the verso (e.g. 1-2, 3-4), but the student registers only ever use the verso page. I was therefore asked to write a script to renumber all of these (e.g. 1-2 becomes 1, 3-4 becomes 2), which I created and executed on a test version of the site before applying to the live data.
I also continued to make tweaks to the front-ends for the Comparative Kingship project. I fixed a bug with the Elements glossary of the Irish site, which was loading the Scottish version instead. I also contacted Chris Fleet at NLS Maps to enquire about using a couple of their historical Irish maps with the site. I also fixed the ‘to top’ button in the CMSes not working; the buttons now actually scroll the page to the top as they should. I also fixed some issues relating to parish names no longer being unique in the system (e.g. the parish of Gartly is in the system twice due to it changing county at some point). This was causing issues with the browse option as data was being grouped by parish name. Changing the grouping to the parish ID thankfully fixed the issue.
I also had a chat with Ann Fergusson at the DSL about multi-item bibliographical entries in the existing DSL data. These are being split into individual items, and a new ‘sldid’ attribute in the new data will be used to specify which item in the old entry the new entry corresponds to. We agreed that I would figure out a way to ensure that these IDs can be used in the new website once I receive the updated data.
My final task of the week was to investigate a problem with Rob Maslen’s City of Lost Books blog (https://thecityoflostbooks.glasgow.ac.uk/) when went offline this week and only displayed a ‘database error’. Usually when this happens it’s a problem with the MySQL database and it takes down all of the sites on the server, but this time it was only Rob’s site that was being affected. I tried accessing the WP admin pages and this gave a different error about the database being corrupted. I needed to update the wordpress config file to add the line define(‘WP_ALLOW_REPAIR’, true); and upon reloading the page WordPress attempted to fix the database. After doing so it stated that “The wp_options table is not okay. It is reporting the following error: Table is marked as crashed and last repair failed. WordPress will attempt to repair this table… Failed to repair the wp_options table. Error: Wrong block with wrong total length starting at 10356”. WordPress appeared to regenerate the table, as after this the table existed and was populated with data and the blog went online again and could be logged into. I’ll have to remember this if it happens again in future.
Next week I’ll be back in Glasgow.
I’m down visiting my parents in Yorkshire for the first time in 18 months this week and next, working a total of four days over the two-week period. This week I mainly focussed on the Irish front-end for the Comparative Kingship place-names project, but also adding in some updates to the Scotland system that I recently set up, such as making the Gaelic forms of the classification codes visible and adding options to browse Gaelic forms of place-names and historical forms to the ‘Browse’ facility and ensuring the other place-name and historical form browses only bring back English forms.
The Irish system is mostly identical to the Scottish system, but I did need to make some changes that took a bit of time to implement. As the place-names covered appear to be much more geographically spread out, I’ve allowed the map to be zoomed out further. I’ve also had to remove the modern OS and historical OS map layers as they don’t cover Ireland, so currently there are only three map layers available (the default view, satellite view and satellite view with labels). The Ordnance Survey of Ireland provides access to some historical map layers here: https://geohive.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9def898f708b47f19a8d8b7088a100c4 but their terms and conditions makes it clear that you can’t use the maps on another online resource. However, there are a couple of Irish maps on the NLS website, the Bartholomew Quarter-Inch 1940 (https://maps.nls.uk/geo/explore/#zoom=9&lat=53.10286&lon=-7.34481&layers=13&b=1) and the GSGS One-Inch 1941-3 (https://maps.nls.uk/geo/explore/#zoom=9&lat=53.10286&lon=-7.34481&layers=14&b=1) and we could investigate integrating these as the NLS maps people have always been very helpful.
I also updated the map pop-ups to include the new Irish data fields, such as baronies, townlands and the different map types. Both English and Gaelic forms of things like parishes, baronies and classification codes are displayed throughout the site and on the Record page the ITM figures also appear. I updated the ‘Browse’ page so that it features baronies and the element glossary should work, but I haven’t tested it out as there is no data yet. The Advanced search features a selectable list of baronies and currently a simple textbox for townlands. I may change this to an autocomplete (whereby you start typing and townlands that include the letters appear in a selectable list), or I may leave it as it is, meaning multiple townlands can be searched for and wildcard characters can be used.
I managed to locate downloadable files containing parish boundaries for Ireland here: https://www.townlands.ie/page/download/ and have added these to the data for the two parishes that currently contain data. I haven’t added in any other parish boundaries yet as there are over 200 parishes in our database I don’t want to have to manually add in the boundaries for all of these if it won’t be necessary. Also, on the Scotland maps the three-letter acronym appears in the middle of each parish in order to identify it, but the Irish parishes don’t have TLAs so currently don’t have any labels. The full text of the parish will clutter up the map too much if I use it, so I’m not sure what we could do to label the parishes.
Also this week I responded to some feedback about the Data Management Plan for Kirsteen McCue’s proposal and created a slightly revised version. I also had an email conversation with Eleanor Lawson about her new speech project and how the web presence for the project may function. Finally, I made some tweaks to the Dictionary of the Scots Language, updating the layout of the ‘Contact’ page and updating the bibliography page on the new website so that URLs that use the old style IDs will continue to work. I also had a chat with Rhona Alcorn about some new search options that we are going to add in to the new site before it goes live, although probably not until the autumn.
After a lovely week’s holiday in the East Neuk of Fife last week I returned to full week of work. I spent Monday catching up with emails and making some updates to two project websites. Firstly, for the Anglo-Norman Dictionary I updated the Textbase to add in the additional PDF texts. As these are not part of the main Textbase I created a separate page that listed and linked to them, and added a reference to the page to the introductory paragraph of the main Textbase page. Secondly, I made some further updates to the content management system for the Books and Borrowing project. There was a bug in the ‘clear borrower’ feature that resulted in the normalised occupation fields not getting clears. This meant that unless a researcher noticed and manually removed the selected occupations it would be very easy to end up with occupations assigned to the wrong borrower. I implemented a fix for this bug, so all is well now. I had also been alerted to an issue with the library’s ‘books’ tab. When limiting the listed books to only those mentioned in a specific register the list of associated borrowing records that appears in a popup was not limiting the records to those in the specified register. I fixed this as well, and also made a comparable fix to the ‘borrowers’ tab as well.
During the week I also had an email conversation with Kirsteen McCue about her ‘Singing the Nation’ AHRC proposal, and made a new version of the Data Management Plan for her. I also investigated some anomalies with the stats for the Dictionary of the Scots Language website for Rhona Alcon. Usage figures were down compared to last year, but it looks like last year may have been a blip caused by Covid, as figures for this year match up pretty well with the figures for years before the dreaded 2020.
On Wednesday I was alerted to an issue with the Historical Thesaurus website, which appeared to be completely inaccessible. Further investigation revealed that other sites on the server were also all down. Rather strangely the Arts IT Support team could all access the sites without issue, and I realised that if I turned wifi off on my phone and accessed the site via mobile data I could access the site too. I had thought it was an issue with my ISP, but Marc Alexander reported that he used a different ISP and could also not access the sites. Marc pointed me in the direction of two very handy websites that are useful for checking whether websites are online or not. https://downforeveryoneorjustme.com checks the site and lets you know whether it’s working while https://www.uptrends.com/tools/uptime is a little more in-depth and checks whether the site is available from various locations across the globe. I’ll need to remember these in future.
The sites were still inaccessible on Thursday morning and after some Googling I found an answer to someone with a similar issue here: https://webmasters.stackexchange.com/questions/104092/why-is-my-site-showing-as-being-down-for-some-places-and-not-others I asked Arts IT Support to check with central IT Services to see whether any DNS settings had been changed recently or if they know what might be causing the issue, as it turned out to be a more widespread issue than I had thought, and was affecting sites on different servers too. A quick check of the sites linked to from this site showed that around 20 websites were inaccessible.
Thankfully by Thursday lunchtime the sites had begun to be accessible again, although not for everyone. I could access them, but Marc Alexander still couldn’t. By Friday morning all of the sites were fully accessible again from locations around the globe, and Arts IT Support got back to me with a cause for the issue. Apparently there was some server in the Boyd Orr that controls DNS records for the University and it had gone wrong and sent out garbled instructions to other DNS servers around the world, which knocked out access to our sites, even though the sites themselves were all working perfectly.
I spent the rest of the week working on the front-end for the Scotland data for the Comparative Kingship project, a task that I’d begun before I went away on my holiday. I managed to complete an initial version of the Scotland front-end, which involved taking the front-end from one of the existing place-names websites (e.g. https://kcb-placenames.glasgow.ac.uk/) and adapting it. I had to make a number of adaptations, such as ensuring that two parallel interfaces and APIs could function on one site (one for Scotland, one for Ireland), updating a lot of the site text, creating a new, improved menu system and updating the maps so that they defaulted to the new area of research. I also needed to add in facilities to search, return data for and display new Gaelic fields, e.g. Gaelic versions of place-names and historical forms. This meant updating the advanced search to add in a new ‘language’ choice option, to enable a user to limit their search to just English or Gaelic place-name forms or historical forms. This in turn meant updating the API to add in this additional option.
An additional complication came when I attempted to grab the parish boundary data, which for previous project I’d successfully exported from Scottish Government’s Spatial Data website (https://www.spatialdata.gov.scot/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/c1d34a5d-28a7-4944-9892-196ca6b3be0c) via a handy API (https://maps.gov.scot/server/rest/services/ScotGov/AgricultureEnvironment/MapServer/1/query). However, the parish boundary data was not getting returned with latitude / longitude pairs marking the parish shape, but instead used esriMeters instead. I found someone else who wanted to covert esriMeters into lat/lng (https://gis.stackexchange.com/questions/54534/how-can-i-convert-esrimeters-to-lat-lng) and one of the responses was that with an ArcGIS service (which the above API appears to be) you should be able to set the ‘output spatial reference’, with the code 4326 being used for WGS84, which would give lat/lng values. The API form does indeed have an ‘Output Spatial Reference’ field, but unfortunately it doesn’t seem to do anything. I did lots of further Googling and tried countless different ways of entering the code, but nothing changed the output.
Eventually I gave up and tried an alternative approach. The site also provides the parish data as an ESRI Shapefile (https://maps.gov.scot/ATOM/shapefiles/SG_AgriculturalParishes_2016.zip) and I wondered whether I could plug this into a desktop GIS package and use it to migrate the coordinates to lat/lng. I installed the free GIS package QGIS (https://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html) and after opening it went to the ‘Layer’ menu, selected ‘Add Layer’, then ‘Add Vector Layer’ then selected the zip file and pressed ‘add’, at which point all of the parish data loaded in, allowing me to select a parish and view the details for it. What I then needed to do was to find a means of changing the spatial reference and saving a geoJSON file. After much trial and error I discovered that in the ‘Layer’ menu there is a ‘Save as’ option. This allowed me to specify the output format (geoJSON) and change the ‘CRS’, which is the ‘Coordinate Reference System’. In the drop-down list I located ESPG: 4326 / WGS84 and selected it. I then specified a filename (the folder defaults to a Windows System folder and needs to be updated too) and pressed ‘OK’ and after a long wait the geoJSON file was generated, with latitude and longitude values for all parishes. Phew! It was quite a relief to get this working.
With access to a geoJSON file containing parishes with lat/lng pairings I could then find and import the parishes that we needed for the current project, of which there were 28. It took a bit of time to grab all of these, and I then needed to figure out where I wanted the three-letter acronyms for each parish to be displayed, as well, which I worked out using the National Library of Scotland’s parish boundaries map (https://maps.nls.uk/geo/boundaries/), which helpfully displays lat/lng coordinates for your cursor position in the bottom right. With all of the parish boundary data in place the infrastructure for the Scotland front-end is now more or less complete and I await feedback from the project team. I will begin work on the Ireland section next, which will take quite some work as the data fields are quite different. I’m only going to be working a total of four days over the next two weeks (probably as half-days) so my reports for the next couple of weeks are likely to be a little shorter!
This was a four-day week for me as I’m off on Friday and will be off all of next week too. A big thing I ticked off my ‘to do’ list this week was completing work on the ‘Browse’ facility for the Anglo-Norman Textbase, featuring each text on its own continuous page rather than split into sometimes hundreds of individual pages. I finished updating the way footnotes work, and they are now renumbered starting at  on each page of each text no matter what format they originally had. All of the issues I’d noted about footnote numbers in my previous couple of blog posts have now been addressed (e.g. numbering out of sequence, numbers getting erroneously repeated).
With the footnotes in place I then we through each of the 77 texts to check their layout, which took quite some time but also raised a few issues that needed to be fixed. The biggest thing was I needed to regenerate the page number data (used in the ‘jump to page’ feature) as I realised the previously generated data was including all <pb> tags, but some of the texts such as ‘indentures’ use <pb> to mean something else. For example, ‘<pb ed=”MS” n=”Dorse”/>’ is not an actual page break and there are numerous of these occurrences throughout the text, resulting in lots of ‘Dorse’ options in the ‘jump to page’ list. Instead I limited the page breaks to just those that have ‘ed=”base”’ in them, e.g. ‘<pb n=”49″ ed=”base”/>’ and this seems to have done the trick.
I also noticed some issues with paragraph and table tags in footnotes causing the notes to display in the wrong place or display only partially, and the ‘dorse’ issue was also resulting in footnotes getting added to the wrong page sometimes. Thankfully I managed to fix these issues and so as far as I can tell that’s the ‘browse’ facility of the Textbase complete. The editors don’t want to launch the Textbase until the search facilities have also been developed, so it’s going to be a while until they’re actually available, what with summer holidays and commitments to other projects.
Also this week I continued to work on the Books and Borrowings project, having an email conversation with the digitisers at the NLS about file formats and methods of transferring files, and making further updates to the CMS to add features and make things run quicker. I managed to reduce the number of database calls on the ‘Books’ tab in the library view again, which should mean the page loads faster. Previously all book holding records were returned and then a separate query was executed for each to count the number of borrowings whereas I’ve now nested the count query in the initial query. So for St Andrews with its 7471 books this has cut out 7471 individual queries.
I’d realised that the ‘borrowing records’ count column in this ‘Books’ table isn’t actually a count of borrowing records at all, but a count of the number of book items that have been borrowed for the book holding. I’ve figured out a way to return a count of borrowing records instead, and I replaced the old way with the new way, so the ‘Borrowing Records’ column now does what it should do. This means the numbers listed have changed, e.g. ‘Universal History’ now has 177 borrowing records rather than 269 and is no longer the most borrowed book holding at St Andrews. I also changed the popup so that each borrowing record only appears once (e.g. David Gregory on 1748-6-7 now only has one borrowing record listed). I added a further ‘Total borrowed items’ column in as well, to hold the information that was previously in the ‘Borrowing Records’ column, and it’s possible to order the table by this column too. I also noticed that I’d accidentally removed columns displaying additional fields from the table, so I have reinstated these. For St Andrews this means the ‘Classmark’ column is now back in the table. I also realised that my new nested count queries were not limiting their counts when a specific register was selected so updated them to take this into consideration too.